Được viết: Thứ sáu, 28-12-2012

Đục thủy tinh thể là hiện tượng mờ như đám mây trong thủy tinh thể của mắt. Trong phẫu thuật thủy tinh thể, bác sĩ sẽ lấy bỏ thủy tinh thể đục và trong hầu hết các trường hợp thay vào bằng thủy tinh thể nhân tạo. Phẫu thuật đục thủy tinh thể thường thành công, hơn 90% người thay thủy tinh thể có cải thiện thị lực sau phẫu thuật.

Nếu đục thủy tinh thể khiến bạn khó khăn trong các hoạt động hàng ngày, bác sỹ có thể sẽ chỉ định phẫu thuật thủy tinh thể. Thậm chí nếu thị lực chưa ảnh hưởng nhiều nhưng nhìn chói hoặc nhìn đôi, bạn cũng cần phẫu thuật thủy tinh thể. Khi đục thủy tinh thể gây cản trở điều trị các bệnh mắt khác như thoái hóa hoàng điểm tuổi già, bệnh võng mạc tiểu đường hoặc bong võng mạc thì vấn đề thay thủy tinh thể có thể được đưa ra. Ở người trẻ hoặc người bị tiểu đường, đục thủy tinh thể có thể tiến triển nhanh, do vậy cần phẫu thuật thủy tinh thể sớm hơn.Khi nào nên mổ thay thủy tinh thể?

Phẫu thuật thủy tinh thể thực hiện như thế nào?

Phẫu thuật tán nhuyễn thủy tinh thể bằng sóng siêu âm (Phaco): Bác sĩ lấy thủy tinh thể đục nhưng để lại toàn bộ bao sau thủy tinh thể. Để làm được điều này, phẫu thuật viên phải rạch một vết rạch nhỏ, kích thước khoảng 3mm ở vùng rìa (nơi giác mạc gặp kết mạc) sau đó cho đầu dụng cụ rất nhỏ qua vết rạch vào, đầu này truyền  sóng siêu âm để phá vỡ thủy tinh thể đục, sau đó hút các mảnh vỡ ra. Bao sau thủy tinh thể vẫn giữ nguyên để làm chỗ đặt thủy tinh thể nhân tạo.

Phẫu thuật lấy thủy tinh thể ngoài bao: Nếu thủy tinh thể chín đến độ kỹ thuật phá vỡ nhân thủy tinh thể bằng siêu âm không thể phá vỡ được, bác sĩ có thể lấy thủy tinh thể trong bao. Phẫu thuật này yêu cầu vết rạch rộng, khoảng 10mm ở vùng giác mạc và củng mạc gặp nhau, lấy nhân thủy tinh thể nguyên khối và hút sạch lớp vỏ mềm thủy tinh thể, để lại bao thủy tinh thể.

Ngay sau khi thủy tinh thể đục được lấy đi bằng phương pháp Phaco hoặc lấy ngoài bao, thủy tinh thể nhân tạo sẽ được đặt vào bao sau. Thủy tinh thể cấy vào này được gọi là kính nội nhãn (IOL), được làm bằng chất liệu plastic, acrylic hoặc silicon. Bạn sẽ không thể tự nhìn thấy thủy tinh thể hoặc cảm nhận thấy nó, nó không đòi hỏi phải chăm sóc và là một thành phần vĩnh cửu trong mắt.

Sau phẫu thuật thủy tinh thể

Trong phẫu thuật Phaco, thủy tinh thể cấy vào có thể gấp, vết rạch rất nhỏ và không cần khâu. Nếu mọi thứ tiến triển tốt, vết mổ liền nhanh thì thị lực của bạn sẽ bắt đầu cải thiện trong vài ngày. Đặc biệt bạn nên khám lại vào ngày sau phẫu thuật, 1 tuần sau và 1 tháng sau.

Nếu bạn cảm thấy ngứa và hơi khó chịu trong vài ngày sau phẫu thuật là bình thường. Tránh chà xát hoặc day dụi vào mắt. Rửa mi mắt bằng gạc để lấy đi chất dịch bám vào mắt. Bạn có thể băng che mắt bảo vệ trong ngày sau phẫu thuật. Bác sỹ có thể kê đơn thuốc tra mắt hoặc thuốc phòng nhiễm khuẩn và kiểm soát nhãn áp. Sau vài ngày, những khó chịu sau phẫu thuật sẽ hết. Thông thường, mắt bạn hồi phục hoàn toàn trong vòng 8 tuần. Bạn nên khám ngay nếu có các dấu hiệu sau: giảm thị lực; đau kéo dài mặc dù đã dùng thuốc giảm đau; đỏ mắt tăng; chớp sáng hoặc nhiều đốm đen trước mắt; buồn nôn, nôn hoặc ho nhiều.

Sau thủ thuật, bạn chỉ cần lưu lại phòng khám khoảng 1 giờ để chắc chắn là nhãn áp của bạn không tăng, một biến chứng tiềm tàng nếu bạn bị glocom hoặc cận thị nặng. Các biến chứng khác thường hiếm nhưng có thể gặp phù hoàng điểm và bong võng mạc.

Bên cạnh chế độ sinh hoạt và bảo vệ mắt, bạn nên ăn các loại thực phẩm giàu vitamin A, beta- caroten,... như cà chua, cà rốt, gấc,.... để bổ sung dưỡng chất, tăng cường thị lực. Hơn nữa, sau khi thay thủy tinh thể nhân tạo bệnh nhân nên sử dụng thêm một số thực phẩm bổ sung giúp ngăn ngừa tiến triển và tái phát bệnh, đặc biệt là sản phẩm có nguồn gốc từ tự nhiên, gồm rất nhiều các thành phần như Hoàng đằng, Quercetin, Apha- lipoic acid, Lutein, Zeaxanthin, kẽm, Vitamin B2. 

Thanh Hằng 

 

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